What Is the Internet of Things IoT?

Fang et al. introduced an integrated information system that integrates IoT, geo-informatics, cloud computing, global positioning system , geographical information system and e-science in order to provide an effective environmental monitoring and control system. They mentioned that the proposed IIS provides improved data collection, analysis and decision making for climate control. Various tools and techniques are available to air quality measures and control. Cheng et al. proposed AirCloud which is a cloud based air quality and monitoring system.

Insider Intelligence forecasts 3.74 billion IoT mobile connections worldwide by 2025 and more than 64 billion IoT devices installed by 2026. Get business insights on the latest innovations, market trends, and your competitors with data-driven research. Proprietary data and over 3,000 third-party sources about the most important topics. “Will fragmentation of standards only hinder the true potential of the IoT industry?”. Hu, J.; Lennox, B.; Arvin, F., “Robust formation control for networked robotic systems using Negative Imaginary dynamics” Automatica, 2022. Hu, J.; Niu, H.; Carrasco, J.; Lennox, B.; Arvin, F., “Fault-tolerant cooperative navigation of networked UAV swarms for forest fire monitoring” Aerospace Science and Technology, 2022.

There are several planned or ongoing large-scale deployments of the IoT, to enable better management of cities and systems. For example, Songdo, South Korea, the first of its kind fully equipped and wired smart city, is gradually being built, with approximately 70 percent of the business district completed as of June 2018. Much of the city is planned to be wired and automated, with little or no human intervention. The IoT can assist in the integration of communications, control, and information processing across various transportation systems. Application of the IoT extends to all aspects of transportation systems (i.e., the vehicle, the infrastructure, and the driver or user). IoT devices can be used to enable remote health monitoring and emergency notification systems.

US intelligence community briefings have warned that the country’s adversaries already have the ability to threaten its critical infrastructure as well “as the broader ecosystem of connected consumer and industrial devices known as the Internet of Things”. US intelligence has also warned that connected thermostats, cameras, and cookers could all be used either to spy on citizens of another country, or to cause havoc if they were hacked. Adding key elements of national critical infrastructure to the IoT makes it even more vital that security is as tight as possible. The IoT bridges the gap between the digital world and the physical world, which means that hacking into devices can have dangerous real-world consequences. Hacking into the sensors controlling the temperature in a power station could trick the operators into making a catastrophic decision; taking control of a driverless car could also end in disaster.

Secure Socket Layer and Datagram Transport Layer Security are one of the cryptographic protocols that are implemented between transport and application layer to provide security solutions in various IoT systems . However, some IoT applications require different methods to ensure the security in communication between IoT devices. Besides this, if communication takes place using wireless technologies within the IoT system, it becomes more vulnerable to security risks. Therefore, certain methods should be deployed to detect malicious actions and for self healing or recovery. Privacy on the other hand is another important concern which allows users to feel secure and comfortable while using IoT solutions.

 

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Currently the Internet is already responsible for 5% of the total energy generated, and a “daunting challenge to power” IoT devices to collect and even store data still remains. Concerns about privacy have led many to consider the possibility that big data infrastructures such as the Internet of things and data mining are inherently incompatible with privacy. Key challenges of increased digitalization in the water, transport or energy sector are related to privacy and cybersecurity which necessitate an adequate response from research and policymakers alike. System security always a concern for any technology, and it is more crucial for SIoT as not only security of oneself need to be considered but also the mutual trust mechanism between collaborative IoT devices from time to time, from place to place. The Internet of Battlefield Things is a project initiated and executed by the U.S.

IoT has brought up some new advancements to make it more efficient, comfortable and reliable. Intelligent sensors, drone devices are now controlling the traffic at different signalized intersections across major cities. In addition, vehicles are being launched in markets with pre-installed sensing devices that are able to sense the upcoming heavy traffic congestions on the map and may suggest you another route with low traffic congestion .

Connecting up all these different objects and adding sensors to them adds a level of digital intelligence to devices that would be otherwise dumb, enabling them to communicate real-time data without involving a human being. The Internet of Things is making the fabric of the world around us more smarter and more responsive, merging the digital and physical universes. Noura et al. stated the importance of interoperability in IoT as it allows integration of devices, services from different heterogeneous platforms to provide the efficient and reliable service. Several other studies focused on the importance of interoperability and discussed several challenges that interoperability issue is facing in IoT . Kim et al. addressed the issue of climate change and proposed an IoT based ecological monitoring system. They mentioned that existing approaches are time consuming and required a lot of human intervention.

Qiu et al. stated that technology that is being used for ecosystem control is immature with low intelligence level. They mentioned that it could be a good application area for IoT developers and researchers. IoT has a multidisciplinary vision to provide its benefit to several domains such as environmental, industrial, public/private, medical, transportation etc. Different researchers have explained the IoT differently with respect to specific interests and aspects.

Some larger objects may themselves be filled with many smaller IoT components, such as a jet engine that’s now filled with thousands of sensors collecting and transmitting data back to make sure it is operating efficiently. At an even bigger scale, smart cities projects are filling entire regions with sensors to help us understand and control the environment. General Safety Across All IndustriesIn addition to tracking physical assets, IoT can be used to improve worker safety. Employees in hazardous environments such as mines, oil and gas fields, and chemical and power plants, for example, need to know about the occurrence of a hazardous event that might affect them.

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