All the 4 enseignes final mentioned are examples of the tactic of executing these ornaments described in Cellini’s famous treatise on the goldsmith’s art, where he extols the goldsmith Caradosso as a craftsman expert above all others of their production. The work is repoussé; the St. John’s head being additionally labored into full aid by this process, and then applied to the dish. Such repoussé figures were regularly hooked up to an unbiased background fashioned of lapis-lazuli, agate, or another treasured substance. Among the jewels in the public collections in London, which on account of their design or form were presumably supposed to be worn within the hat or cap, there are several noteworthy examples.
In the British Museum is a thirteenth-century MS. (quoted by Mr. Wright in Archæologia, Vol. XXX), which accommodates instructions for the wearing of assorted stones, and for the composition of the different metals of the rings during which they were to be set. Among the jewelled fragments are hinged bands of silver gilt, formed of plates of basse-taille enamel representing animals and grotesques, which alternate with settings of darkish blue pastes and white crystals surrounded by radiating pearls. These bands in all probability went around the lower part of the mitre, and likewise perhaps ran up the center of it, before and behind. The crests of the mitre had been edged with strips of exquisitely chased crocketing in gold. The different fragments include two rosettes of fantastically executed Gothic foliation set with white crystals, together with two quatrefoils in silver gilt and a cruciform gold decoration set with turquoises. That he collected gems is known from a letter written by a previous of Worcester to Edmer, Anselm’s biographer, during which he suggests that for money Henry may be persuaded to part with some pearls.
NTIL the center of the nineteenth century the peasants and natives of every nation district of Europe wore modest gold and silver jewellery, of small pecuniary value, but of nice artistic interest. A few years in the past peasant jewelry was seldom sought for, and comparatively unknown; and collectors, higher informed in different respects, didn’t consider saving it from the melting-pot. It is now, nevertheless, starting to attract some of the attention it deserves. We enter concerning the yr 1830 into the Romantic period—the days of the heroines of Balzac, the times when Byron and Ossian have been à la mode, the days of a fancy chivalry and mediæval sentimentality, of Sir Walter Scott, and above the entire Gothic revival.
As in earlier durations, a crystal or a colourless paste was made to mimic a coloured stone by backing it with a foil. At South Kensington an instance exists, set in a gold ring of sixteenth-century German work (No. 1206-’03), of a white crystal, which is cut en cabochon and backed with a pink foil, and bears a putting resemblance to a carbuncle (Pl. XXIII, 17). Hair-pins, like other articles of Renaissance jewellery, are exceptional for their number of design, particularly as far as the heads of the pins are involved. In the Germanic Museum at Nuremberg are several hair-pins with heads variously ornamented, considered one of them being within the type of a small enamelled hand. The shaft of the pin is usually flat, open-worked and enamelled; occasionally the head is connected to it by a ring and hangs loosely from it. A gold enamelled hair-pin is among the many jewels of Princess Amalia Hedwig (d. 1607), the contents of whose coffin, opened in the eighteenth century with these of the Counts Palatine of Neuburg at Lauingen, are actually in the Bavarian National Museum.
EFORE coping with Greek jewellery of the basic period some reference should be made to the primitive and archaic ornaments that preceded it. The period and part of Greek tradition to which the primitive ornaments belong is understood broadly as “Mycenæan”—a title it owes to the discoveries made at Mycenæ, the place in 1876 Schliemann dropped at light the famous gold treasure now preserved within the National Museum at Athens. A characteristic motive of the decoration of those objects is the use of spiral patterns nearly identical with those employed on Celtic ornaments.
The technical course of often known as champlevé was carried out in two ways. By one methodology the floor of the gold was simply incised with designs, and the grooves thus made crammed with enamel. By another marketing firms near me sugar land method only skinny lines of the steel were reserved to kind the design, and the remainder of the field cut out to obtain the enamel.
Some varieties are present in other elements of England in addition to Mercia, East Anglia, and Northumbria, however they are uncommon in Kent. These cruciform Anglian brooches are of forged bronze, usually gilt, but generally plated with silver. They are often of monumental measurement, and lined with impolite and elaborate patterns corresponding to are found upon early Scandinavian objects. Since the patterns were added after the brooches have been cast, it occurs that, though forms are regularly similar, decorations differ on almost each specimen. With the rarest exception, they are by no means garnished with valuable stones. This kind of brooch seems to have been evolved concerning the fourth century.
Among sculptured representations of the necklet probably the most interesting is that on the monument of Sir John Crosby (d. 1475) and his spouse in St. Helen’s Church, Bishopsgate, where the latter wears a really good-looking necklace of roses, to which is hooked up a cluster of three roses with three pendants below. Sir John’s collar is considerably equally shaped of rosette-shaped ornaments. An early occasion of a heavy neck-chain of gold, worn upon the breast, is to be seen upon the famous tapestry, thought of to represent Henry VI and his Queen, in St. Mary’s Hall, Coventry. Among probably the most exceptional objects dropped at light in this method are certain curious mediæval ornaments, which belong to the age that has bequeathed exceedingly few examples of articles for private use.